Detailed Historical Contributions

These are contributions which were sent to me for this project, which dealt with the historical background of exchange names in great detail. Much of this information is very difficult to find, and I am greatly indebted to everyone who's taken the time to send it. Thanks!

Sylvia Gallus, Thu, 26 Sep 1996

Guess what? What you're calling "Exchange Names" are really called "Central Office Names". That info comes straight from Bell Canada's historical division (Lorraine at 514-391-5852, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada). Everybody calls them exchanges anyway.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Central office names first appeared in the March 1901 directory. Your central office switched the calls you made out over a trunk line over to the receiving central office. The names were:

Adelaide Junction North

Beach Kenwood Oliver

Belmont Kingsdale Orchard

College Lakeside Oxford

Elgin Lloydbrook Parkdale

Gerrard Lombard Plaza

Gladstone Lyndhurst Princess

Grover Main Randolph

Hargrave Mayfair Redfern

Hillcrest Melrose Riverdale

Howard Midway Rodney

Hudson Mohawk Trinity*

Hyland Murray Waverley

*"Trinity Square" happens to be Bell Canada's downtown Toronto huge office building, possibly related?

In 1951, Bell Canada introduced the new "2 Letter 5 Digit" phone number system (it didn't have a fancy name or acronym). This was done for the new "direct distance dialing" system (dial your own long distance calls) and because they were running out of phone numbers. Bell also thought that people couldn't remember 7 digit phone numbers, but that they would remember a location, 1 digit, and 4 digits. The central office names were originally based upon a physical neighbourhood, but this system degraded as they ran out of available letter (number) pairs.

At this time, "ADeliaide" and "ELgin" central office names were changed to EMpire 3- and EMpire 4- respectively. Here is a short history:

Jan 1951 directory

EMpire 3- Eliminated - Adelaide

EMpire 4- " - Elgin

Mar 1952

EMpire 6- Eliminated - Plaza

RUsell 1- (new) April 16, 1951, but too late for publication in '51

ACademy 1- (new)

Mar 1953

EMpire 8- Eliminated - Waverley

HUdson 8- " - Hudson

HUdson 9- " - Hyland

Mar 1954

WAlnut 1- Eliminated - Randolph

WAlnut 2- " - Kingsdale

WAlnut 3- " - Midway

WAlnut 4- " - Princess

HUdson 1- (new)

Mar 1955

OXford 1- Eliminated - Howard

OXford 4- " - Grover

OXford 9- " - Oxford

ROger 2- " - Murray

ROger 6- " - Rodney

ROger 7- " - Lyndhurst

ROger 9- " - Junction

UNiversity 1- " - Trinity

Mar 1956

LEnnox 1- Eliminated - Melrose

LEnnox 2- " - Lakeside

LEnnox 3- " - Kenwood

LEnnox 4- " - Oliver

LEnnox 5- " - Lloydbrook

LEnnox 6- " - Lombard

Mar 1957

HOward 1- Eliminated - Riverdale

HOward 3- " - Gerrard

HOward 5- " - Gladstone

HOward 6- " - Hargrave

Mar 1958

HUdson 3- Eliminated - Mohawk

HUdson 5- " - Mayfair

RUssell 2- " - Orchard

RUssell 3- " - Redfern

WAlnut 5- (new)

In April 1961, seven digit telephone numbers were introduced in Toronto. This system is called "ANC", for "All Number Calling". The first 2 Letter 5 Digit numbers to be converted to ANC were EMpire 8- and WAlnut 4- which, logically, became "368" and "924" respectively.

Montreal, Ontario, Canada

Here is some information on the Montreal and area central office names:

Name Dial Cutover (converted from human switchboard to you-dial phone)

AMherst: August 1925

ATlantic February 1938

AVenue ?

BElair March 1932

BYwater July 1941

CAlumet June 1934

CHerrier December 1926

CLairval September 1940

CRescent August 1927

DAniel October 1958 (New dial central office)

DExter October 1931 (New dial central office)

DOllard September 1931

DOminic June 1959 (New dial central office)

DUpont February 1929

East (Never cutover to dial, closed in 1928)

ELwood February 1930

EXdale August 1941 (New dial central office)

FAlkirk November 1929

FEderal July 1959 (New dial central office)

FItzroy September 1930. Became WEllington 5-, July 1957

FOrest ?

FRontenac October 1928

GIffard July 1951 (New dial central office)

GLenview Nov. 1950 (New dial central office). Became WEllington 7-, July 1957

GRavelle December 1948 (New dial central office)

HArbour March 1928 (New dial central office). Became VIctor 5-, July 1957

HEmlock September 1948 (New dial central office). Became POntiac 7-, July 1957

HOchelaga May 1949 (New dial central office)

HUnter June 1952 (New dial central office)

LAfontaine July 1955 (New dial central office)

LAncaster April 4, 1925 (First dial cutover)

LAsalle Became CLairval, January 1924

Main (Never cutover to dial, demolished in 1935)

MArquette Became VIctor 9-, September 1929

MElrose February 6, 1955 (became WAlnut, January 1924)

MIssion ?

MOntcalm ?

MOnument ?

Mount ?

MUrray ?

National ?

NElson ?

NOrmandie ?

OLympia ?

ORchard ?

ORleans ?

OXford ?

PLateau July 1931

POntiac August 1957 (New dial central office)

RAymond April 1953 (New dial central office)

REgent February 1954 (New dial central office)

RIverside ?

ROckland Became ATlantic in January 1924

St. Louis Became BElair in January 1924

South (Never cutover to dial)

TAlon March 1939 (New dial central office)

Talbot ?

TRenmore February 1947 (New dial central office). Became POntiac 8-, July 1957

Triange ?

TUrcotte December 1947

UNiversity October 1949 (New dial central office)

UPtown Name disappeared

VEndome July 1948 (New dial central office). Became DUpont 7-, July 1957

VIctor August 1957 (New dial central office)

VIctoria August 1948 (New dial central office)

WAlnut February 1934

WEllington May 1934. Became WEllington 3-, July 1957

WEstmount Became WEllington, January 1933. Became WEllinton 3-, July 1957

WIlbank Dec. 1928 (New dial central office). Became WEllington 2-, July 1957

YOrk August 4, 1957

If you're interested, I also have the "Chronologial Data" list on the Toronto Central Offices, from 1879 to 1950. It gives the central office name and switch type, address, and opening date. Interesting to note the "Main Exchange" (second one built) was destroyed by fire on May 24, 1884; rebuilt by October 1884, only to be destroyed by fire in April 1886 (rebuilt again by September 1886, then moved in June 1894).

I hope you find this info useful. Amazing what you can discover with one phone call to the right person...

Gee, I'll say!

Mark J Cuccia, Sat, 2 Nov 1996

Here is the New Orleans Exchange History.


(I think that most of the earlier info was prepared by the Louisiana Telephone Pioneers)

1879- first exchange magneto (New Orleans Telephonic Exchange) located at #47 Camp Street (this was the *old* New Orleans street address scheme which was changed in the 1890's to addresses showing a block number)

1880- name change to Louisiana Telephone Company

1881- origianl switchboard replaced with one having several sections

1883- location moved to the `uptown-river' corner of Poydras & Carondelet

A new Western Electric switchboard was installed; girls replaced boys as telephone operators; name changed to The Great Southern Telephone & Telegraph Company

1885- a `multiple' board was installed by Western Electric

1897- location moved to the `uptown-lake' corner of Poydras & Carondelet; AT&T maintained a toll board next door at 527 Carondelet

1898- name change to The Cumberland Telephone & Telegraph Company

1900- magneto board(s) replaced with a common battery board

1903- new exchange split off, the Uptown exchange at 1331 Foucher Street; original exchange (with remaining customers) called Main

1906- Hemlock exchange (1020 Esplanada Ave)to serve `downtown' area (downtown meaning `below' Canal street; the Central Business District is the Main)

1906- Algiers exchange to serve the area on the westbank of the Miss.River (area known as `Algiers'; 513 Opelousas at Verett Streets)

1909- Jackson exchange at Josephine & Carondelet Sts. to supplement the Uptown exchange

1910- Walnut exchange 1031 Burdette at 7728 Zimple streets (University/Carrollton areas of uptown New Orl)

1911- Galvez exchange 200(201?) S.Galvez & Cleveland streets to serve the `back-of-town' area

1913- Southern Bell takes over Cumberland Tel&Tel; consolidation into Southern Bell completed in 1926

1916- construction for new building for 820 Poydras street

1925- Cedar exchange in Metairie area at 2728 Metairie Road at Gruner St.

Thru 1926, all New Orleans was MANUAL; line numbers could be one to four digits long; multi-party lines had a letter tacked onto each station on parties sharing the line. All parties on the same line shared the same numericals however. 2-party lines differentiated each other with W & J 4-party lines used J, M, R, W

1927- DIAL SERVICE begins to cut-in with 2 manuals cutover(11 June 1927)

all exchanges had their first two letters capitalized to be dialed into. All `less-than-four' digit line numbers had leading zero(s). Party lines cutting to dial service had to be renumbered so each party on the same line had unique 4-digit line numbers.

Hemlock manual replaced by FRanklin (1740 Almonaster St at N.Roman St; That portion of Almonaster Street also known as Franlin Avenue)

Galvez manual replaced by GAlvez (4420 Cleveland)

21 Jan 1928 RAymond (520 Baronne near Poydras St) added to help the MAin manual

July 1928 CRescent added to FRanklin

Oct. 1928 AUdubon added to GAlvez

Dec. 1933 (the Depression Years): due to loss of subscribers, all AUdubon stations moved into GAlvez; AUdubon switches (thousands, hundereds, connectors) moved out

Oct. 1936 AUdubon exchange placed in again, adding to GAlvez

28 May 1938 MAin manual cuts to MAgnolia dial (in the RAymond building)

June 1941 CAnal added to RAymond & MAgnolia

2 Aug 1941 all manual JAckson cut to new JAckson & CHestnut dial (4310 St.Charles Ave); many UPtown manual lines moved to new dial unit.

June 1942 BYwater added to FRanklin & CRescent

March 1947 AMherst added to GAlvez & AUdubon

Aug. 1947 VAlley added to FRanklin/CRescent/BYwater

20 Oct.1947 TEmple (at 115 Gruner St, Metairie) added to old CEdar manual in adjacent building; many manual CEdar lines cut to TEmple dial.

April 1948 VIctor added to FRanklin/CRescent/BYwater/VAlley

21 June 1948 UNiversity dial at 1807 Burdette at Hickory streets added to help out WAlnut manual. Many WAlnut lines cut to UNiversity dial

Dec 1948 TUlane added to RAymond/MAgnolia/CAnal

Oct.1949 TYler added to JAckson & CHestnut

18 Nov.1950 CEdar manual cuts to dial, moving to adjacent TEmple building

15 Dec.1951 new EDison dial office on westbank to serve the communities of Harvey & Marrero (which used to have loops under the river from the JAckson/CHestnut/TYler office) new office on Fourth Street at Avenue `J' in Marrero LA.

March 1952 EXpress added to RAymond-MAgnolia-CAnal-TUlane

1 July 1952- coax cable from Jackson MS to Hattiesburg MS to New Orleans completed; LIVE national network TV available in New Orleans

11 Oct 1952- new FAirview & EVergreen switch to service the Gentilly area from 1944 Prentiss Ave at St.Anthony streets. Splits the northern area of GAlvez-AUdubon-AMherst & FRanklin-CRescent-BYwater-VAlley-VIctor

1 March 1953- New Orleans becomes the second Southern Bell Tel & Tel city to have Operator Toll Dialing

6 Jan. 1955:

ALgiers manual becomes dial as FOrest-1,6 (at 1020 Hancock St, Gretna LA)

EDison becomes FIllmore-1

St.Bernard LA becomes a CDO

6 Nov. 1955- Chalmette LA gets own switch, cutting away from FR-CR-BY-VA-VI located on Moreau street in Chalmette. EDgewood-1

Between 1955 and 1960, all 2-letter exchanges become 2-letters and a digit; MOST switches do a consolidation of their names to a new single common name plus a digit for each of the old exchange names in that switch;

1955 (second to last manual becomes dial, moving to dial building)

CHestnut =========> TWinbrook-1

JAckson ==========> TWinbrook-5

UPtown (manual) ==> TWinbrook-7

TYler ============> TWinbrook-9

1956 (last manual becomes dial, moving to dial building)

WAlnut (manual) ==> UNiversity-1 (and add UN-5)

UNiversity (dial) ==> UNiversity-6


CEdar ===> VErnon-1 and 5

TEmple ==> VErnon-3

1957 1957

VAlley ===> WHitehall-3 CAnal ====> JAckson-2

VIctor ===> WHitehall-4 MAgnolia => JAckson-3

FRanklin => WHitehall-5 TUlane ===> JAckson-4

CRescent => WHitehall-7 RAymond ==> JAckson-5

BYwater ==> WHitehall-9 EXpress ==> JAckson-9

(also, a WHitehall-0 (also, OFficial, telco business office becomes was introduced in the known as LAfayette-9, using same inward switch newley developing N.O.East as JAckson-9, but there is also a Step PBX for area; this was a split) Southern Bell Telco business office numbers)

1959 1960

GAlvez ===> HUnter-2 FAirview ===> ATwood-2

AMherst ==> HUnter-6 EVergreen ==> ATwood-8

AUdubon ==> HUnter-8


Kenner LA had 3 and 4 digit numbers in the 30's (manual) 4-digit dial in the 1940's; TOLL charges, operator connected; later local free using Tandem access code 21+; By 1950, Kenner had numbers 4-xxxx, 7-xxxx, 71-xxxx, were dialed from New Orleans with the 21+ access code; also St.Bernard LA's step CDO (5-xxxx) were dialed with the 21+ access code.

In 1960, Kenner's 4- and 7-/71- became PArk-1,9. I don't remember what mapped to what. St.Bernard's 5-xxxx became 682 around 1962 when other manual `rural' exchanges became CDO using `6' as the first digit of the NNX (6 became the digit for routing to the step tandem)


New Orleans East (the older part of the East which still had WH-x numbers and the newer developed area with WH-0) were all cut over to CHestnut-2, the very first #5XB switch in New Orleans; This was also a `split' since it took many original WH-3,4,5,7,9 numbers into it!


EDgewood-1 renamed ARabi-1,9

New wirecenter switches were #5XB beginning in the early 1960's;

New NNX codes to existing switches were *usually* step if the switch was step

New NNX codes to exisiting #5XB switches were #5XB;

One existing step switch (FOrest= 36x) had new NNX's that were #5XB

The VErnon=83x step switch had VE-4 and 837 as a new #5XB but later new NNX's were step.

By the early 1970's, #1(A)ESS began to be introduced; first as a new switch with its own new NNX codes `overlayed' to exisitng switches and territory. Beginning in the mid-70's, step's began to be cut to ESS, and #5XB's began to be cut to ESS beginning in the late-70's.

Mark J Cuccia, Sat, 2 Nov 1996

This is one of the articles on "WordNumbers" on the phone dial. It includes some charts of various differences in different countries.

> Is there any reasonably well-accepted standard for the letters on a telephone?

Here is a compilation of information that was posted the last time this question came up. Thanks are due to Jani Poij{rvi <> and Bo Holst-Christensen <>, who collected most of the data.

(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)


Used in: USA, Canada

Manufacturers: Everyone in the US/CA market


Used in: Rest of the world

Manufacturers: Samsung, Alcatel


Used in: Parts of Europe (cellular phones only?)

Manufacturers: Siemens, Ericsson


Used in: Scandinavia (cellular phones only?)

Manufacturers: Ascom

Notes: The unprintables are A-umlaut, O-umlaut, A-ring, respectively.


Used in: Scandinavia

Manufacturers: Philips

Notes: Same as European, but with various accented vowels allocated to "*" and "#". How is this possible?


Used in: Denmark

Notes: Formerly used in large cities, but apparently no longer in use. Unprintable are AE & OE, respectively.


Used in: Great Britain

Notes: Same as International, but without "Z".

Mark J. Cuccia, Sat, 02 Nov 1996

Philadelphia EXchanges, Circa 1946

In Summer 1946, Philadelphia went from "3L-4N" local numbering to "2L-5N".

This wasn't simply a change of the third letter of the exchange name to a digit. In Philadelphia in 1946, when the third "dialpull" changed from the third letter of the exchange name to a numerical digit, the numerical was *NOT* necessarily the corresponding number on the third letter. *MOST* of Philadelphia's exchanges changed over using a *DIFFERENT* numerical for the third dialpull.

There weren't many other cities in the US which had 3L-4N. Unlike Philadelphia, most of those location changed the third letter of most of their exchange names to the directly corresponding numerical digit.

New York City had 3L-4N numbering until about 1930. Boston also had 3L-4N numbering. And Chicago changed from 3L-4N to 2L-5N around 1948 or so. There might have been one or two other large cities in the US with 3L-4N. I don't think that any large cities in Canada had 3L-4N local numbering. Outside of the US, Paris (France) had 3L-4N, as well as the larger cities in England and Scotland.

There is a {Bell Telephone Magazine} article documenting the changeover:

"Philadelphia Goes 2-5", by Harold S. Le Duc, volume 25 (1946), issue 3 (Autumn '46). The article begins on page 175 of v.25 (1946). I will summarize some of what the article contained, including a chart of the EXchanges in Philadelphia at that time:

Bell had mailed fliers, bill inserts, etc. explaining the change, had MANY radio commercials and announcements beforehand (including translations to Yiddish, Polish and Italian for ethnic language local radio programs). There were several newspaper advertisements and announcements in the three dailies, as well as in the thirty-four neighborhood weeklies and the twenty-one ethnic and foreign languague newspapers (German, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, Jewish, and Negro) [I am using the identifiers as was printed in the 1946 article]

Some 355,000 Philadelphia (and some 125,000 suburban) customers received letters from Bell, at that time the largest single mailing ever in the Philadelphia area.

The Volunteer Service for the Blind distributed some 3,500 instruction cards printed in Braille.

The Summer 1946 Philadelphia directory was the first to be split into separate Yellow and White pages. The entire directory had to be re-typeset. More than one-million directories were delivered between 3 June and 1 July of 1946. Customers were instructed not to use the new directories until 7:00 a.m. Friday 5 July 1946, the time of the cut.

Tranisition information began an entire year before the cut. All Philadelphia area number cards had to be changed over. Many people were visited by repairmen and installers as well as by temporary employees with Bell of Pennsylvania, i.e. High School boys off for the Summer. Some people were mailed new number cards and according to the article, Bell called up those people with most reporting no problems changing the number card in the center of their dial. There were about 500,000 number cards or lines which had to be changed for the metro area.

Recorded announcement equipment similar to Time and Weather equipment was used to instruct callers using the wrong code to dial the RIGHT code, after the cut took effect.

Between 7:00 and 8:00 a.m. on Friday 5 July, 22% of calls were dialed with the wrong code. During the busiest hours (10:00 a.m. to 12:00 Noon) only 12% of calls were incorrectly dialed. All calls with a misdialed exchange code were properly intercepted up to 10:00 am, and most could be intercepted between 10:00 a.m. and 12:00 Noon. (I assume that callers dialing the wrong code received a re-order or maybe simply 'dead silence'). From 12:00 Noon Friday until 10:00 a.m. Monday 8 July, all calls dialed with the wrong code were intercepted with the recording.

On Monday 8 July, between 10:00 a.m. and 12:00 Noon, only 5% of total calls in the area were dialed incorrectly. But due to heavy calling volume, intercept recordings were suspended in three switching offices. After 12:00 Noon on Monday 8 July, *ALL* misdialed codes were able to be properly intercepted with the recording.

After one week, only 3.2% of calls were dialed incorrectly; after two weeks, only 2.5% were dialed with the wrong code; by 24 July, only 1.9%; at the time of writing of the article, only 1.2% (slightly more than 1 in 100 calls).

The initial intercept recording was: "Will you please dial the first *TWO* letters and the *FIVE* figures, as shown in the new directory? Thank you!" Some people were not hanging up and then going offhook for new dialtone before dialing; others would try to 'talk' back to the recording. The recorded message had to be changed to: "Will you please *HANG-UP* and dial the first *TWO* letters and *FIVE* figures, as shown in the new directory? Thank you! *This is a recorded message*"

The woman who recorded the messages was interviewed on radio and in the papers, as she had become a sort of local celebrity. There were even some people deliberately misdialed the exchange code, so as to hear the woman's recorded voice!

The article also includes some photos of "window-scene" promotional displays, in office buildings and department stores (and probably the Bell of Pennsylvania main office building) which included "cute" props of WECO model #202 style telephones with arms and legs, and a head, indicating the old and the new style of number in their dial cards. One of the displays was styled like "construction" scene, with the 202-phone props working a crane on an overhead marquee of a telephone number, popping out the third letter of the exchange, and inserting a digit. Bell also gave "open-house" programs in its offices and in public buildings, describing the change.

A SMALL copy of an exchange dialing changeover/conversion chart is shown in the article. I tried to enlarge it when photocopying, and have transcribed it here. I am not certain of Philadelphia's geography, neither do I have any idea of where the switching offices and buildings are located in Philadelphia, nor which part of town each covers. I do understand that there were various CHANGES in central office names/codes since 1946, as well as new/additional central offices switches and codes.

2L-5N 3L-4N

222 = BAring-2 (was 227 = BARing)

229 = BAldwin-9 (was 225 = BALdwin)

236 = BElgrade-6 (was 235 = BELgrade)

247 = CHestnut-hill-7 (was 243 = CHEstnut-hill)

254 = ALlegheny-4 (was 255 = ALLegheny)

288 = CUmberland-8 (was 286 = CUMberland)

289 = BUstleton-9 (was 287 = BUStleton)

324 = DAvenport-4 (was 328 = DAVenport)

334 = DEwey-4 (was 339 = DEWey)

336 = DElaware-6 (was 335 = DELaware)

338 = DEvonshire-8 (was 338 = DEVonshire) NO CHANGE HERE

342 = FIdelity-2 (was 343 = FIDelity)

377 = FRemont-7 (was 373 = FREmont)

386 = EVergreen-6 (was 383 = EVErgreen)

389 = FUlton-9 (was 395 = FULton)

424 = HAncock-4 (was 426 = HANcock)

425 = GArfield-5 (was 427 = GARfield)

438 = GErmantown-8 (was 437 = GERmantown)

455 = GLadstone-5 (was 452 = GLAdstone)

468 = HOward-8 (was 469 = HOWard)

472 = GRanite-2 (was 472 = GRAnite) NO CHANGE HERE

473 = GReenwood-3 (was 473 = GREenwood) NO CHANGE HERE

535 = JEfferson-5 (was 534 = JEFerson)

545 = KIngsley-5 (was 546 = KINgsley)

549 = LIvingston-9 (was 548 = LIVingston)

563 = LOmbard-3 (was 566 = LOMbard)

567 = LOcust-7 (was 562 = LOCust)

624 = MAyfair-4 (was 629 = MAYfair)

625 = MAjestic-5 (was 625 = MAJestic) NO CHANGE HERE

627 = MArket-7 (was 627 = MARket) NO CHANGE HERE

628 = MAnayunk-8 (was 626 = MANayunk)

633 = OFficial-3 (was 633 = OFFicial) NO CHANGE HERE

634 = NEbraska-4 (was 632 = NEBraska)

644 = MIchigan-4 (was 642 = MIChigan)

686 = MUnicipal-6 (was 686 = MUNicipal) NO CHANGE HERE

722 = SAgamore-2 (was 724 = SAGamore)

725 = RAcliff-5 (was 722 = RACliff)

729 = SAratoga-9 (was 727 = SARatoga)

735 = PEnnypacker-5 (was 736 = PENnypacker)

739 = REgent-9 (was 734 = REGent)

745 = PIlgrim-5 (was 745 = PILgrim) NO CHANGE HERE

746 = RIttenhouse-6 (was 748 = RITtenhouse)

747 = SHerwood-7 (was 743 = SHErwood)

765 = POplar-5 (was 767 = POPlar)

766 = SOmerton-6 (was 766 = SOMerton) NO CHANGE HERE

768 = ROxboro-8 (was 769 = ROXboro)

774 = SPruce-4 (was 777 = SPRuce)

784 = STevenson-4 (was 783 = STEvenson)

839 = TEnnessee-9 (was 836 = TENnessee)

844 = VIctor-4 (was 842 = VICtor)

864 = TOrresdale-4 (was 867 = TORresdale)

877 = TRinity-7 (was 874 = TRInity)

922 = WAlnut-2 (was 925 = WALnut)

924 = WAverly-4 (was 928 = WAVerly)

947 = WIssahicken-7 (was 947 = WISsahicken) NO CHANGE HERE

I think that OFFicial == OFficial-4 (633) was used to call Bell of Pennsylvania (telco) business office, repair service, etc.

In 1946, Philadelphia used Panel and #1XB switching, not Step-by-Step. I also think that there were some remaining manual offices in Phialdelphia at that time.

last update: 27 January 1997